Debian 10 Setup Instructions (post install)

By: Matthew_Moore

_____________________________________________________________________________

Enable Sudo

Enter root using SU command

apt-get install sudo

Navigate to sudoers file /etc/sudoers and add user to list

EXAMPLE:

# Allow members of group sudo to execute any command

%sudo ALL=(ALL:ALL) ALL

matt    ALL=(ALL:ALL) ALL

______________________________________________________________________________

Enable 32bit Architecture:

(required for installing 32 bit packages such as Steam )

sudo dpkg --add-architecture i386

Refresh package index:

sudo apt-get update

______________________________________________________________________________

Find fastest mirrors. ( Optional )

install netselect-apt

sudo apt-get install netselect-apt

Run command:

netselect-apt

A list of mirrors ranked by speed will be places in your home directory

Copy this list to  /etc/apt/sources.list

Refresh package index:

sudo apt-get update

______________________________________________________________________________

Enable Contrib and Non-Free packages.

Open Synaptic Package manager, Select settings / repositories

select each item and at the bottom of the Window under "Sections"

Add contrib non-free. EXAMPLE:

| main contrib non-free |

Repeat for each item. When finished press OK and then refresh

the package index by pressing the Reload button in the top left

of synaptic package manager.

______________________________________________________________________________

Adding Backports Repository.

add the following to your /etc/apt/sources.list file.

deb http://ftp.us.debian.org/debian/ buster-backports main contrib non-free

run sudo apt-get udpate to refresh package index.

To install an application from the backport repository specify the repo using the following command.

sudo apt-get -t buster-backports install <package name>

_____________________________________________________________________________

Install non-free codecs and other media components. ( Optional )

NOTE: These must be installed seperatly to avoid errors / conflicts.

sudo apt-get install ffmpeg

sudo apt-get install ffmpeg:i386

sudo apt-get install ttf-mscorefonts-installer

sudo apt-get install libdvdcss2

sudo apt-get install libdvd-pkg

sudo dpkg-reconfigure libdvd-pkg

sudo apt-get install ffmpegthumbnailer

sudo apt-get install gstreamer1.0-plugins-bad

sudo apt-get install gstreamer1.0-plugins-ugly

sudo apt-get install gstreamer1.0-libav

sudo apt-get install tumbler-plugins-extra

______________________________________________________________________________

Install Linux Firmware and base packages:

sudo apt-get install gdebi firmware-linux firmware-linux-nonfree

______________________________________________________________________________

Install Microcode for Intel Proscessors. ( Optional )

sudo apt-get install intel-microcode

______________________________________________________________________________

Utility Applications:

sudo apt-get install file-roller rar unrar

______________________________________________________________________________

Fix QT Themeing on GTK based Desktops.

sudo apt-get install qt4-qtconfig

sudo apt-get install qt5-style-plugins

Open the QT 4 settings application, Under the Appearance tab

change the GUI Style to GTK +. You will be prompted to save

changes upon closing the application.

For QT 5 based applications run the following command to set the

environment variable.

Enter Root Environment using SU.

sudo echo "QT_QPA_PLATFORMTHEME=gtk2" >> /etc/environment

NOTE: Due to a bug involving a segmentation fault, this dose not work with QT 5.7.0, Upgrade to 5.7.1 or wait for the update to come from upstream.

Log out and back in, or reboot your machine for changes to take effect.

___________________________________________________________________________

Install Nvidia Drivers

sudo apt-get install nvidia-detect

Run command:

nvidia-detect

Install the recommended driver shown

Example:

sudo apt-get install linux-headers-$(uname -r) nvidia-legacy-340xx-driver

Create an Xorg configuration for your gpu

mkdir /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d

nano /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/20-nvidia.conf

Now add below contents to the file and save

Section "Device"

Identifier "My GPU"

Driver "nvidia"

EndSection

Reboot...

__________________________________________________________________________

Install and enable "ALL" Wifi Functions for Broadcom WiFi.

The default non-free firmware only gives you basic functionality. To get the most out of your Brodcom WiFi chip, install the following firmware packages.  

Install broadcom packages.

sudo apt-get install broadcom-sta-dkms broadcom-sta-common firmware-brcm80211

Reboot system for changes to take effect.

__________________________________________________________________________

Install Bluetooth packages for XFCE.

sudo apt-get install bluetooth blueman bluez bluez-firmware bluez-cups bluez-tools

Reboot system for changes to take effect.

__________________________________________________________________________

Enable Notifications for XFCE Mail-Watcher Extention. ( XCFE Only )

Run on click: thunderbird

Run on New Messages: notify-send "New mail" "You have new messages in your inbox" -i xfce-newmail

__________________________________________________________________________

To give yourself permissions so virtualbox can access Shared folders and USB devices  use this command,

sudo gpasswd -a $USER vboxusers

__________________________________________________________________________

Improve font rendering in Debian.

Show hidden files in file manager.

Create file /home/user/.fonts.conf

Copy and paste the following text into file

<?xml version='1.0'?>

<!DOCTYPE fontconfig SYSTEM 'fonts.dtd'>

<fontconfig>

 <match target="font">

  <edit mode="assign" name="rgba">

   <const>rgb</const>

  </edit>

 </match>

 <match target="font">

  <edit mode="assign" name="hinting">

   <bool>true</bool>

  </edit>

 </match>

 <match target="font">

  <edit mode="assign" name="hintstyle">

   <const>hintslight</const>

  </edit>

 </match>

 <match target="font">

  <edit mode="assign" name="antialias">

   <bool>true</bool>

  </edit>

 </match>

  <match target="font">

    <edit mode="assign" name="lcdfilter">

      <const>lcddefault</const>

    </edit>

  </match>

</fontconfig>

Reboot system for changes to take effect.

__________________________________________________________________________

Hide Partitions on Boot:  ( Optional )

Create a new file /etc/udev/rules.d/99-hide-partitions.rules and add one line per partition you want to hide like so:

( change "sda*" to match the partition you wish to hide )

 

KERNEL=="sda1",ENV{UDISKS_IGNORE}="1"

KERNEL=="sda2",ENV{UDISKS_IGNORE}="1"

You should be able to dynamically activate it as root:

  # udevadm trigger --verbose

_____________________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________________

Backup / Restore installed APT packages

# Backup your packages list to your home directory

# Get a packages list

dpkg --get-selections > ~/Package.list

# Copy list of repositories to your home directory

sudo cp /etc/apt/sources.list ~/sources.list

# Export repo keys to your home directory

sudo apt-key exportall > ~/Repo.keys

# Restore packages from your home directory

sudo apt-key add ~/Repo.keys

sudo cp ~/sources.list /etc/apt/sources.list

sudo dpkg --add-architecture i386

sudo apt-get update

sudo apt-get install dselect

sudo apt-get install $(cat ~/Package.list | awk '{print $1}')

#NOTE: if SUDO is not configured, Simply use root terminal or SU.

#CRITICAL: Any packages installed using a .DEB file or other source not

included in your repositories/sources.list, must be removed from Package.list before restoring to avoid errors. These packages will need to be reinstalled manually.